1. polyethelene—-10 m rad gamma radiation—- annealing at 150* c. —– results in highly crossed linked polyethelene — which has very low wear rate
so head size can be increased, thus helping in surface replacement arthroplasty also.
2. metal on metal— investment casting on high carbon cobalt chromium alloy— — precipitation of high carbide larger particles all over the matrix .
carbide is very hard approximatly = ceramic , resistant to wear, less debris, less risk of loosening.
3. ceramic on ceramic– hot isostatic pressing 3 fold reduction in particle size—- improved burst strength.
proof testing of individual implant.
thanks to hitesh and harshad for sending me ppt of damage control orthopaedics, that helped me a lot.